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also gipsy, c. 1600, alteration of gypcian, a worn-down Middle English dialectal form of egypcien "Egyptian," from the supposed origin of the people. As an adjective, from 1620s. Compare British gippy (1889) a modern shortened colloquial form of Egyptian.
Cognate with Spanish Gitano and close in sense to Turkish and Arabic Kipti "gypsy," literally "Coptic;" but in Middle French they were Bohémien (see bohemian), and in Spanish also Flamenco "from Flanders." "The gipsies seem doomed to be associated with countries with which they have nothing to do" [Weekley]. Zingari, the Italian and German name, is of unknown origin. Romany is from the people's own language, a plural adjective form of rom "man." Gipsy
was the preferred spelling in England. The name is also in extended use
applied to "a person exhibiting any of the qualities attributed to
Gipsies, as darkness of complexion, trickery in trade, arts of cajolery,
and, especially as applied to a young woman, playful freedom or
innocent roguishness of action or manner" [Century Dictionary]. As an
adjective from 1620s with a sense "unconventional; outdoor."
gypsy of society; person (especially an artist) who lives a free and
somewhat dissipated life, despising conventionalities and having little
regard for social standards," 1848, from a transferred sense of French bohemién "a Bohemian; a Gypsy," from the country name (see Bohemia). The Middle English word for "a resident or native of Bohemia" was Bemener.
The French used bohemién
since 15c. to also mean "Gypsy." The Roma were wrongly believed to have
come from there, perhaps because their first appearance in Western
Europe may have been immediately from Bohemia, or because they were
confused with the 15c. Bohemian Hussite heretics, who were driven from
their country about that time.
The transferred sense, in reference
to unconventional living, is attested in French by 1834 and was
popularized by Henri Murger's stories from the late 1840s later
collected as "Scenes de la Vie de Boheme" (the basis of Puccini's "La Bohème"). It appears in English 1848 in Thackary's "Vanity Fair."
term 'Bohemian' has come to be very commonly accepted in our day as the
description of a certain kind of literary gipsey, no matter in what
language he speaks, or what city he inhabits .... A Bohemian is simply
an artist or littérateur who, consciously or unconsciously, secedes from
conventionality in life and in art. ["Westminster Review," 1862]
Hence also the adjective, "unconventional, free from social restraints" (1848).
As we follow evidence through history, we see that slavery was a huge
advantage for any new empire to become a success and thrive. Evidence
has shown us that this was a way life for nearly every country in
existence. Slaves were needed for labor whether it be for farmers or
building walls to the empire. Slaves were therefore very important to
Slavery in the ancient world, from the earliest known recorded evidence in Sumer to the pre-medieval Antiquity Mediterranean cultures, comprised a mixture of debt-slavery, slavery as a punishment for crime, and the enslavement of prisoners of war.
Masters could free slaves, and in many cases such freedmen went on to rise to positions of power.
This would include those children born into slavery but who were
actually the children of the master of the house. Their father would
ensure that his children were not condemned to a life of slavery.
The institution of slavery condemned a majority of slaves
to agricultural and industrial labor and they lived hard lives. In many
of these cultures slaves formed a very large part of the economy, and
in particular the Roman Empire and some of the Greek poleis built a large part of their wealth on slaves acquired through conquest.
Private wage and salary workers This includes
people who worked for wages, salary, commission, tips, pay-in-kind, or
piece rates for a private, for-profit employer or a private
not-for-profit, tax-exempt or charitable organization. Self-employed
people whose business was incorporated are included with private wage
and salary workers because they are paid employees of their own
companies. Published tabulations sometimes present data separately for
the basic classes: "employee of private company workers" (a salaried
employee in the for-profit sector), "private not-for-profit wage and
salary workers," and "self-employed in own incorporated business
workers." Also, “employee of private company workers” and “self-employed
in own incorporated business workers” are often reported together as
“private-for-profit wage and salary workers”.
Government workers This includes people who
were employees of any local, state, or Federal governmental unit,
regardless of the activity of the particular agency. Often, the data are
presented separately for the three levels of government. The government
class of worker categories include all government workers, though they
may work in industries other than public administration. For example,
people who work in a public elementary school or city owned bus line are
coded as local government class of workers.
Self-employed in own not incorporated business workers
This class includes people who worked for profit or fees in their own
unincorporated business, profession, or trade, or who operated a farm.
This class is often tabulated together with the following group, unpaid
Unpaid family workers Includes people who
worked without pay in a business or on a farm operated by a relative.
Note that, on tabulations with earnings data, unpaid family workers may
have earnings; this can be either from a second job (class of worker is
assigned based on the job accounting for the most hours worked) or from
previous employment (because the earnings reference period is the past
year, while for class of worker it is the previous week).
Located in the pricey San Francisco suburb of Dublin, and surrounded by million-dollar homes, the all-women’s low-security prison
not only has one of California’s most expensive zip codes but also
“cool ocean breezes, floor to ceiling windows without bars, private
rooms with televisions and computers and acres of gardens,” according to
Donal Kelleher, 37, an inmate at HMP Cardiff,
said that his en suite accommodation was "outstanding" and disclosed
that he was paid £10 a week – to study for a maths GCSE – which he
spends on cigarettes, chocolate and "other luxury goods".
A prison officer who has worked at Cardiff for 15 years said last week
that inmates were simply sitting in their cells watching snooker on
television or playing computer games.
He added that a new health care centre put local hospitals "to shame"
and made it easier to see a dentist than on the "outside". The
extraordinary claims were made after The Daily Telegraph
disclosed last week that a prison officers' leader said jails had become
so comfortable that some inmates were ignoring chances to escape.
Glyn Travis, the assistant general secretary of the Prison Officers
Association, said the latest disclosure confirmed his fears and that "we
need to address the root of what prisons are all about".
Kelleher, a former Welsh Guard, stabbed his wife Leanne seven times in
the chest and back after she told him she was leaving him. He was jailed
He stated that the education department at Cardiff was of a "very high standard".
He said: "I'm currently doing a GCSE grade in maths which I am paid ten
pound a week to achieve which I can spend on tobbacco (sic), chocolate
and other luxury goods." The inmate signed the letter "Donal Kelleher,
Prisoner No. GE7247, HMP Cardiff". David Davies, the Conservative MP for
Monmouth, visited the prison last year.
He said: "I saw prisoners sitting in their cells watching television and playing computer games.
"It seems to be an unwritten rule if they are left alone to do whatever they want they won't cause any trouble."
15 But if you will not obey the Lord
your God by diligently observing all his commandments and decrees,
which I am commanding you today, then all these curses shall come upon
you and overtake you:
16 Cursed shall you be in the city, and cursed shall you be in the field.
17 Cursed shall be your basket and your kneading bowl.
18 Cursed shall be the fruit of your womb, the fruit of your ground, the increase of your cattle and the issue of your flock.
19 Cursed shall you be when you come in, and cursed shall you be when you go out.
20 The Lord
will send upon you disaster, panic, and frustration in everything you
attempt to do, until you are destroyed and perish quickly, on account of
the evil of your deeds, because you have forsaken me. 21 The Lord will make the pestilence cling to you until it has consumed you off the land that you are entering to possess. 22 The Lord
will afflict you with consumption, fever, inflammation, with fiery heat
and drought, and with blight and mildew; they shall pursue you until
you perish. 23 The sky over your head shall be bronze, and the earth under you iron. 24 The Lord will change the rain of your land into powder, and only dust shall come down upon you from the sky until you are destroyed.
A Yaranga is a tent-like traditional mobile home of some nomadic Northern indigenous peoples of Russia, such as Chukchi and Siberian Yupik.
A Yaranga is a cone-shaped or rounded reindeer-hide tent. It is built of a light wooden frame covered with reindeer skins or canvas sewn together.
A chum (pronounced "choom") is a temporary dwelling used by the nomadic Uralic (Nenets, Nganasans, Enets, Khanty, Mansi, Komi) reindeer herders of northwestern Siberia of Russia. The Evenks, Tungusic peoples, tribes, in Russia, Mongolia and China also use chums. They are also used by the southernmost reindeer herders, of the Todzha region of the Republic of Tyva and their cross-border relatives in northern Mongolia. It has a design similar to a Native American tipi but some versions are less vertical. It is very closely related to the Sami lavvu in construction, but is somewhat larger in size. Some chums can be up to thirty feet (ten meters) in diameter
The Ajanta Caves are 30 (approximately) rock-cut Buddhist cave monuments which date from the 2nd century BCE to about 480 CE in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra state of India. The caves include paintings and rock-cut sculptures described as among
the finest surviving examples of ancient Indian art, particularly
expressive paintings that present emotion through gesture, pose and
According to UNESCO, these are masterpieces of Buddhist religious art that influenced the Indian art that followed.
The caves were built in two phases, the first phase starting around the
2nd century BCE, while the second phase was built around 400–650 CE,
according to older accounts, or in a brief period of 460–480 CE
according to later scholarship. The site is a protected monument in the care of the Archaeological Survey of India, and since 1983, the Ajanta Caves have been a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Ajanta Caves constitute ancient monasteries and worship-halls
of different Buddhist traditions carved into a 75-metre (246 ft) wall
of rock. The caves also present paintings depicting the past lives and rebirths of the Buddha, pictorial tales from Aryasura's Jatakamala, and rock-cut sculptures of Buddhist deities.
Textual records suggest that these caves served as a monsoon retreat
for monks, as well as a resting site for merchants and pilgrims in
While vivid colours and mural wall-painting were abundant in Indian
history as evidenced by historical records, Caves 16, 17, 1 and 2 of
Ajanta form the largest corpus of surviving ancient Indian
The Storr is a prime example of the Trotternish landslip, the longest such feature in Great Britain. It is the type locality for the mineral gyrolite.
The area in front of the cliffs of the Storr is known as the
Sanctuary. This has a number of weirdly shaped rock pinnacles, the
remnants of ancient landslips.
A well-constructed path, used by many sightseers, leaves the A855 just north of Loch Leathan. It heads up through a clearfell area that was formerly a conifer plantation. Most day-trippers are content simply to wander around the Sanctuary
Raasay (Scottish Gaelic: Ratharsair) or the Isle of Raasay is an island between the Isle of Skye and the mainland of Scotland. It is separated from Skye by the Sound of Raasay and from Applecross by the Inner Sound. It is most famous for being the birthplace of Gaelic poet Sorley MacLean, an important figure in the Scottish Renaissance.
Traditionally the home of Clan MacSween, the island was ruled by the MacLeods
from the 15th to the 19th century.
The spread of Scots culture from Dalriada north of Ardnamurchan is poorly understood and little is recorded of Raasay's early Christian period.
Following Viking expeditions to the islands they called the Suðreyjar in the eighth century, Raasay became part of the Norse Kingdom of the Isles and for much of the period religious observance came under the jurisdiction of the Bishopric of the Isles. The Hebrides were yielded to the Kingdom of Scotland as a result of the 1266 Treaty of Perth,[c] after which time control of the islands north of Ardnamurchan was in the hands of the Earls of Ross. In addition to the name "Raasay" itself, placenames such as Arnish
(eagle headland), Suidhisnis (seething headland) and Eyre (beach or sand
spit) are a legacy of the Norse presence.
Tradition has it that Clan MacSween originally held title to Raasay but there is no written record of this. It is known that the island was ruled by the MacLeods from 1518
In Hindu mythology, a kinnara is a paradigmatic lover, a celestial musician, half-human and half-horse
(India). In South-east Asia, two of the most beloved mythological
characters are the benevolent half-human, half-bird creatures known as
the Kinnara and Kinnari, which are believed to come from the Himalayas
and often watch over the well-being of humans in times of trouble or
danger. Their character is clarified in the Adi parva of the Mahabharata, where they say:
They are also featured in a number of Buddhist texts, including the Lotus Sutra.
An ancient Indian string instrument is known as the Kinnari Veena.
Pishachas (Sanskrit: पिशाच, Piśāca) are flesh-eating demons in Hindu theology.
Theology describes them as the sons of either Krodha (figuratively "Anger") or as Dakṣa’s daughter Piśāca. They have been described to bulging veins and protruding, red eyes. They are believed to have their own languages, known as Paiśāci.
According to one legend, they are sons of Kashyapa and Krodhavasa, one of the daughters of Prajapati Daksha. The Nilamat Puran of the 7th century mentions the valley of Kashmir being inhabited by two tribes: the Nagas and the Pisachas.
Piśācas like darkness and traditionally are depicted as haunting cremation grounds along with other monsters like bhutas and vetālas.
"The Throne Room at Knossos and its painted decoration are
one of the most celebrated, yet highly contentious, topics of discussion
in Aegean archaeology. Previous bibliography is marred by substantial
confusion and misunderstanding stemming from a significant amount of
imaginative speculation that has been piled over the years on top of
Arthur Evans's Throne Room reconstructions. The latter are in themselves
highly suspect and dependent on Evans's own firm ideas about the nature
of Knossian society, its religion and symbolism.
The recent redevelopment of the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford
and of the Archaeological Museum in Herakleion presented us with an
excellent opportunity to re-examine the painted fragments discovered by
Evans and his team in the Throne Room in 1900. It allowed us to retrace
their excavation and to bring together the extant archival data, stored
in Oxford, and the archaeological remains, housed at Herakleion, in an
effort to identify the painted fragments that today can be attributed
safely to the Knossian Throne Room. The conservation of some of the
fragments, in preparation for their display at Herakleion, has helped
clarify further the decorative programme of the Throne Room and of the
paint layers and techniques used in its decoration.
For archaeological and stylistic reasons, discussed below,
a Late Minoan (LM) II date is favoured for the execution of the Throne
Room's decorative programme, which included ‘traditional’ (i.e.
Neopalatial) and ‘innovative’ (i.e. Final Palatial) elements. The
coexistence of these elements is, in our view, best interpreted as a
conscious effort of the artist(s) and their commissioners to create a
new, yet still recognisable, image of power – an image that represents
an artistic as well as a political turning point between the Neopalatial
and Final Palatial periods. Within this context, the Throne Room's
decorative programme can be understood as part and parcel of a new,
emerging, ideology – one that was based on the transformation and
subversion of material culture, and of images in particular."
The Renaissance in Scotland was a cultural, intellectual and artistic movement
in Scotland, from the late fifteenth century to the beginning of the
seventeenth century. It is associated with the pan-European Renaissance that is usually regarded as beginning in Italy in the late fourteenth century and reaching northern Europe as a Northern Renaissance in the fifteenth century. It involved an attempt to revive the principles of the classical era, including humanism,
a spirit of scholarly enquiry, scepticism, and concepts of balance and
proportion. Since the twentieth century, the uniqueness and unity of the
Renaissance has been challenged by historians, but significant changes
in Scotland can be seen to have taken place in education, intellectual
life, literature, art, architecture, music, science and politics.
The court was central to the patronage and dissemination of
Renaissance works and ideas. It was also central to the staging of
lavish display that portrayed the political and religious role of the
monarchy. The Renaissance led to the adoption of ideas of imperial
monarchy, encouraging the Scottish crown to join the new monarchies by asserting imperial jurisdiction and distinction. The growing emphasis on education in the Middle Ages became part of a humanist and then Protestant
programme to extend and reform learning. It resulted in the expansion
of the school system and the foundation of six university colleges by
the end of the sixteenth century. Relatively large numbers of Scottish
scholars studied on the continent or in England and some, such as Hector Boece, John Mair, Andrew Melville and George Buchanan, returned to Scotland to play a major part in developing Scottish intellectual life. Vernacular works in Scots began to emerge in the fifteenth century, while Latin remained a major literary language. With the patronage of James V and James VI, writers included William Stewart, John Bellenden, David Lyndsay, William Fowler and Alexander Montgomerie.
In the sixteenth century, Scottish kings – particularly James V – built palaces in Renaissance style, beginning at Linlithgow. The trend soon spread to members of the aristocracy. Painting was strongly influenced by Flemish painting,
with works commissioned from the continent and Flemings serving as
court artists. While church art suffered iconoclasm and a loss of
patronage as a result of the Reformation, house decoration and portraiture became significant for the wealthy, with George Jamesone
emerging as the first major named artist in the early seventeenth
century. Music also incorporated wider European influences although the
Reformation caused a move from complex polyphonic church music to the simpler singing of metrical psalms. Combined with the Union of Crowns
in 1603, the Reformation also removed the church and the court as
sources of patronage, changing the direction of artistic creation and
limiting its scope. In the early seventeenth century the major elements
of the Renaissance began to give way to Mannerism and the Baroque.
The Bengali Renaissance or simply Bengal Renaissance, (Bengali: বাংলার নবজাগরণ; Banglār Nobojāgoroṇ) was a cultural, social, intellectual and artistic movement in Bengal region in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent during the period of the British Indian Empire, from the nineteenth century to the early twentieth century dominated by Bengalis.
The Jindyworobak Movement was an Australian literary movement of the 1930s and 1940s whose white members, mostly poets, sought to contribute to a uniquely Australian culture through the integration of Indigenous Australian subjects, language and mythology. The movement's stated aim was to "free Australian art
from whatever alien influences trammel it" and create works based on an
engagement with the Australian landscape and an "understanding of
Australia's history and traditions, primeval, colonial and modern".
The modern European gene pool was formed when three ancient populations mixed within the last 7,000 years, Nature journal reports.
Blue-eyed, swarthy hunters mingled with brown-eyed, pale skinned farmers as the latter swept into Europe from the Near East.
But another, mysterious population with Siberian affinities also contributed to the genetic landscape of the continent.
The findings are based on analysis of genomes from nine ancient Europeans.
originated in the Near East - in modern Syria, Iraq and Israel - before
expanding into Europe around 7,500 years ago.
It really does
look like the indigenous West European hunter gatherers had this
striking combination of dark skin and blue eyes that doesn't exist any
moreProf David Reich, Harvard Medical School
Multiple lines of evidence suggested this new way of
life was spread by a wave of migrants, who interbred with the indigenous
European hunter-gatherers they encountered on the way.
If you look at all the reconstructions of Mesolithic people on the
internet, they are always depicted as fair skinned... This shows the
Agriculture was sweeping in from the Near East, bringing early
farmers into contact with hunter-gatherers who had already been living
in Europe for tens of thousands of years.
Genetic and archaeological research in the last 10 years has revealed
that almost all present-day Europeans descend from the mixing of these
two ancient populations. But it turns out that’s not the full story.
Researchers at Harvard Medical School and the University of Tübingen
in Germany have now documented a genetic contribution from a third
ancestor: Ancient North Eurasians. This group appears to have
contributed DNA to present-day Europeans as well as to the people who
travelled across the Bering Strait into the Americas more than 15,000
“Prior to this paper, the models we had for European ancestry were two-way mixtures. We show that there are three groups,” said David Reich, professor of genetics at HMS and co-senior author of the study.
“This also explains the recently discovered genetic connection
between Europeans and Native Americans,” Reich added. “The same Ancient
North Eurasian group contributed to both of them.”
The research team also discovered that ancient Near Eastern farmers
and their European descendants can trace much of their ancestry to a
previously unknown, even older lineage called the Basal Eurasians.