Howdy, Stranger!

It looks like you're new here. If you want to get involved, click one of these buttons!

#Tartarians/Barbarians The Conquerors and Reverse Engineers Da vinci to Tesla



  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 938

    Gypsy (n.)

    also gipsy, c. 1600, alteration of gypcian, a worn-down Middle English dialectal form of egypcien "Egyptian," from the supposed origin of the people. As an adjective, from 1620s. Compare British gippy (1889) a modern shortened colloquial form of Egyptian.

    Cognate with Spanish Gitano and close in sense to Turkish and Arabic Kipti "gypsy," literally "Coptic;" but in Middle French they were Bohémien (see bohemian), and in Spanish also Flamenco "from Flanders." "The gipsies seem doomed to be associated with countries with which they have nothing to do" [Weekley]. Zingari, the Italian and German name, is of unknown origin. Romany is from the people's own language, a plural adjective form of rom "man." Gipsy was the preferred spelling in England. The name is also in extended use applied to "a person exhibiting any of the qualities attributed to Gipsies, as darkness of complexion, trickery in trade, arts of cajolery, and, especially as applied to a young woman, playful freedom or innocent roguishness of action or manner" [Century Dictionary]. As an adjective from 1620s with a sense "unconventional; outdoor."

    bohemian (n.)

    "a gypsy of society; person (especially an artist) who lives a free and somewhat dissipated life, despising conventionalities and having little regard for social standards," 1848, from a transferred sense of French bohemién "a Bohemian; a Gypsy," from the country name (see Bohemia). The Middle English word for "a resident or native of Bohemia" was Bemener.

    The French used bohemién since 15c. to also mean "Gypsy." The Roma were wrongly believed to have come from there, perhaps because their first appearance in Western Europe may have been immediately from Bohemia, or because they were confused with the 15c. Bohemian Hussite heretics, who were driven from their country about that time.

    The transferred sense, in reference to unconventional living, is attested in French by 1834 and was popularized by Henri Murger's stories from the late 1840s later collected as "Scenes de la Vie de Boheme" (the basis of Puccini's "La Bohème"). It appears in English 1848 in Thackary's "Vanity Fair."

    The term 'Bohemian' has come to be very commonly accepted in our day as the description of a certain kind of literary gipsey, no matter in what language he speaks, or what city he inhabits .... A Bohemian is simply an artist or littérateur who, consciously or unconsciously, secedes from conventionality in life and in art. ["Westminster Review," 1862]

    Hence also the adjective, "unconventional, free from social restraints" (1848).

  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 938
    The demand for slaves was not large enough to call for specialization in this field of commercial activity (King). Prisoners of war, foreign slaves, and their descendants made up a huge part of the slave population in Mesopotamia (King). The bulk of the Sumerian and Akkadian slaves originally came from the ranks of the native population, which is the case for every city-states at some point in time. The slaves came from citizens who were defaulting debtors, unemployed men and women who sold themselves voluntarily into slavery, and minors who were either sold by their parents or who were forced into a position in which only slavery could save their lives (King).  Merchants who dealt in wheat, cattle, real estate, and so on would also deal in buying and selling slaves as an extra source of income (King).

    As we follow evidence through history, we see that slavery was a huge advantage for any new empire to become a success and thrive. Evidence has shown us that this was a way life for nearly every country in existence. Slaves were needed for labor whether it be for farmers or building walls to the empire. Slaves were therefore very important to their success.


    Above is the Standard of Ur. On the top panel, prisoners are being brought before the king . On the right side, the prisoners are naked and bleeding from their wounds. King Ur-Pabilsag stands in the center of the panel, reviewing the prisoners. Behind the king are three soldiers, each armed with spears and axes. In the rear is the royal chariot, held by the axe-armed driver. The elite warriors and charioteers all seem to be dressed in some type of animal skin or fringed leather kilts and wear cloaks over one shoulder. The common soldiers wear the polka-dotted capes, most likely meant to represent metal studs to make the cloak stronger and more protective in battle. Both classes have the same caps and or helmets.

  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 938

    Slavery in the ancient world, from the earliest known recorded evidence in Sumer to the pre-medieval Antiquity Mediterranean cultures, comprised a mixture of debt-slavery, slavery as a punishment for crime, and the enslavement of prisoners of war.

    Masters could free slaves, and in many cases such freedmen went on to rise to positions of power. This would include those children born into slavery but who were actually the children of the master of the house. Their father would ensure that his children were not condemned to a life of slavery.

    The institution of slavery condemned a majority of slaves to agricultural and industrial labor and they lived hard lives. In many of these cultures slaves formed a very large part of the economy, and in particular the Roman Empire and some of the Greek poleis built a large part of their wealth on slaves acquired through conquest.

    In Ancient Egypt, slaves were mainly obtained through prisoners of war. Other ways people could become slaves was by inheriting the status from their parents. One could also become a slave on account of his inability to pay his debts. Slavery was the direct result of poverty. People also sold themselves into slavery because they were poor peasants and needed food and shelter. The lives of slaves were normally better than that of peasants. Slaves only attempted escape when their treatment was unusually harsh. For many, being a slave in Egypt made them better off than a freeman elsewhere.[2] Young slaves could not be put to hard work, and had to be brought up by the mistress of the household. Not all slaves went to houses. Some also sold themselves to temples, or were assigned to temples by the king. Slave trading was not very popular until later in Ancient Egypt. Afterwards, slave trades sprang up all over Egypt. However, there was barely any worldwide trade. Rather, the individual dealers seem to have approached their customers personally.[2] Only slaves with special traits were traded worldwide. Prices of slaves changed with time. Slaves with a special skill were more valuable than those without one. Slaves had plenty of jobs that they could be assigned to. Some had domestic jobs, like taking care of children, cooking, brewing, or cleaning. Some were gardeners or field hands in stables. They could be craftsmen or even get a higher status. For example, if they could write, they could become a manager of the master's estate. Captive slaves were mostly assigned to the temples or a king, and they had to do manual labor. The worst thing that could happen to a slave was being assigned to the quarries and mines. Private ownership of slaves, captured in war and given by the king to their captor, certainly occurred at the beginning of the Eighteenth Dynasty (1550–1295 BCE). Sales of slaves occurred in the Twenty-fifth Dynasty (732–656 BCE), and contracts of servitude survive from the Twenty-sixth Dynasty (c. 672 – 525 BCE) and from the reign of Darius: apparently such a contract then required the consent of the slave.
  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 938

    The major categories into which these classes are aggregated are as follows:
    • Private wage and salary workers  This includes people who worked for wages, salary, commission, tips, pay-in-kind, or piece rates for a private, for-profit employer or a private not-for-profit, tax-exempt or charitable organization. Self-employed people whose business was incorporated are included with private wage and salary workers because they are paid employees of their own companies. Published tabulations sometimes present data separately for the basic classes: "employee of private company workers" (a salaried employee in the for-profit sector), "private not-for-profit wage and salary workers," and "self-employed in own incorporated business workers." Also, “employee of private company workers” and “self-employed in own incorporated business workers” are often reported together as “private-for-profit wage and salary workers”.

    • Government workers  This includes people who were employees of any local, state, or Federal governmental unit, regardless of the activity of the particular agency. Often, the data are presented separately for the three levels of government. The government class of worker categories include all government workers, though they may work in industries other than public administration. For example, people who work in a public elementary school or city owned bus line are coded as local government class of workers.

    • Self-employed in own not incorporated business workers  This class includes people who worked for profit or fees in their own unincorporated business, profession, or trade, or who operated a farm. This class is often tabulated together with the following group, unpaid family workers.

    • Unpaid family workers  Includes people who worked without pay in a business or on a farm operated by a relative. Note that, on tabulations with earnings data, unpaid family workers may have earnings; this can be either from a second job (class of worker is assigned based on the job accounting for the most hours worked) or from previous employment (because the earnings reference period is the past year, while for class of worker it is the previous week).

    "A blue collar worker refers to someone whose profession requires them to perform a good amount of manual labor. Some of the most common industries that employ these individuals include warehousing, oil fields, firefighting, construction, manufacturing, sanitation, custodial work and technical installations. Most blue collar workers are paid hourly wages although some individuals with these jobs receive an annual salary or get paid by the job. Blue collar jobs are highly specialized and require someone to be skilled in performing a certain task. However, for the most part, they do not require any formal education. A high school diploma or GED is typically all that is required for this kind of work. Most blue collar workers need to wear durable clothing such as cotton or canvas so that it will remain viable even after it has seen some use."
  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 938
    The Emmy winning actress officially checked into prison on Tuesday Oct. 15 to begin her 14-day sentence for her role in the college admissions scandal. But don’t feel too bad for Inmate 77806-112 — as can reveal her comfy prison home is more sunshine than Shawshank.

    “Those who are worried about Felicity should be rest assured that doing time at ‘Chateau Dublin’ (as the Federal Correctional Institution in Dublin, Calif is nicknamed) is as easy as the breeze that wafts through the open windows,” an insider told Radar.

    Located in the pricey San Francisco suburb of Dublin, and surrounded by million-dollar homes, the all-women’s low-security prison not only has one of California’s most expensive zip codes but also “cool ocean breezes, floor to ceiling windows without bars, private rooms with televisions and computers and acres of gardens,” according to the source.

    Huffman, 56, will spend the next 14 days behind bars, after pleading guilty to a fraud conspiracy charge in a Boston courtroom on May 13. She was also slapped with a $30,000 fine and community service.

    Donal Kelleher, 37, an inmate at HMP Cardiff, said that his en suite accommodation was "outstanding" and disclosed that he was paid £10 a week – to study for a maths GCSE – which he spends on cigarettes, chocolate and "other luxury goods".

    A prison officer who has worked at Cardiff for 15 years said last week that inmates were simply sitting in their cells watching snooker on television or playing computer games.

    He added that a new health care centre put local hospitals "to shame" and made it easier to see a dentist than on the "outside". The extraordinary claims were made after The Daily Telegraph disclosed last week that a prison officers' leader said jails had become so comfortable that some inmates were ignoring chances to escape.

    Glyn Travis, the assistant general secretary of the Prison Officers Association, said the latest disclosure confirmed his fears and that "we need to address the root of what prisons are all about".

    Kelleher, a former Welsh Guard, stabbed his wife Leanne seven times in the chest and back after she told him she was leaving him. He was jailed in 2005.

    Kelleher added: "May I just say that the food and accomadation (sic) is of outstanding quality here. We have coulour (sic) TVs, on sweet (sic) facilities, everything is provided for us eg toiletries, laundry."

    He stated that the education department at Cardiff was of a "very high standard".

    He said: "I'm currently doing a GCSE grade in maths which I am paid ten pound a week to achieve which I can spend on tobbacco (sic), chocolate and other luxury goods." The inmate signed the letter "Donal Kelleher, Prisoner No. GE7247, HMP Cardiff". David Davies, the Conservative MP for Monmouth, visited the prison last year.

    He said: "I saw prisoners sitting in their cells watching television and playing computer games.

    "It seems to be an unwritten rule if they are left alone to do whatever they want they won't cause any trouble."

  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 938
    edited October 2019

    Warnings against Disobedience

    15 But if you will not obey the Lord your God by diligently observing all his commandments and decrees, which I am commanding you today, then all these curses shall come upon you and overtake you:

    16 Cursed shall you be in the city, and cursed shall you be in the field.

    17 Cursed shall be your basket and your kneading bowl.

    18 Cursed shall be the fruit of your womb, the fruit of your ground, the increase of your cattle and the issue of your flock.

    19 Cursed shall you be when you come in, and cursed shall you be when you go out.

    20 The Lord will send upon you disaster, panic, and frustration in everything you attempt to do, until you are destroyed and perish quickly, on account of the evil of your deeds, because you have forsaken me. 21 The Lord will make the pestilence cling to you until it has consumed you off the land that you are entering to possess. 22 The Lord will afflict you with consumption, fever, inflammation, with fiery heat and drought, and with blight and mildew; they shall pursue you until you perish. 23 The sky over your head shall be bronze, and the earth under you iron. 24 The Lord will change the rain of your land into powder, and only dust shall come down upon you from the sky until you are destroyed.

    25 The Lord will cause you to be defeated before your enemies; you shall go out against them one way and flee before them seven ways. You shall become an object of horror to all the kingdoms of the earth. 26 Your corpses shall be food for every bird of the air and animal of the earth, and there shall be no one to frighten them away. 27 The Lord will afflict you with the boils of Egypt, with ulcers, scurvy, and itch, of which you cannot be healed.

  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 938

    Death of Captain James Cook, 1783

  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 938
    edited October 2019

  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 938
    mid-14c. (implied in Tartary, "the land of the Tartars"), from Medieval Latin Tartarus, from Persian Tatar, first used 13c. in reference to the hordes of Ghengis Khan (1202-1227), said to be ultimately from Tata, a name of the Mongols for themselves. Form in European languages probably influenced by Latin Tartarus "hell" (e.g. letter of St. Louis of France, 1270: "In the present danger of the Tartars either we shall push them back into the Tartarus whence they are come, or they will bring us all into heaven"). The historical word for what now are called in ethnological works Tatars. A Turkic people, their native region was east of the Caspian Sea. Ghengis' horde was a mix of Tatars, Mongols, Turks, etc. Used figuratively for "savage, rough, irascible person" (1660s).

  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 938
    A traditional yurt (from the Turkic languages) or ger (Mongolian) is a portable, round tent covered with skins or felt and used as a dwelling by several distinct nomadic groups in the steppes of Central Asia

    Yurts have been a distinctive feature of life in Central Asia for at least three thousand years. It is suggested that the Indo-European nomads (mostly Slavic and Indo-Iranians) were the first that used yurts and similar tents in Central Asia and parts of Russia and the Ukraine.[3] The first written description of a yurt used as a dwelling was recorded by the ancient Greek historian Herodotus. He described yurt-like tents as the dwelling place of the Scythians, a horse riding-nomadic nation who lived in the northern Black Sea and Central Asian region from around 600 BC to AD 300.

    A Yaranga is a tent-like traditional mobile home of some nomadic Northern indigenous peoples of Russia, such as Chukchi and Siberian Yupik.

    A Yaranga is a cone-shaped or rounded reindeer-hide tent. It is built of a light wooden frame covered with reindeer skins or canvas sewn together.

    A chum (pronounced "choom") is a temporary dwelling used by the nomadic Uralic (Nenets, Nganasans, Enets, Khanty, Mansi, Komi) reindeer herders of northwestern Siberia of Russia. The Evenks, Tungusic peoples, tribes, in Russia, Mongolia and China also use chums. They are also used by the southernmost reindeer herders, of the Todzha region of the Republic of Tyva and their cross-border relatives in northern Mongolia. It has a design similar to a Native American tipi but some versions are less vertical. It is very closely related to the Sami lavvu in construction, but is somewhat larger in size. Some chums can be up to thirty feet (ten meters) in diameter

  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 938
    Lavvu (or Northern Sami: lávvu, Lule Sami: låvdagoahte, Inari Sami: láávu, Skolt Sami: kååvas, Kildin Sami: koavas, Finnish: kota or umpilaavu, Estonian: koda, Norwegian: lavvo or sametelt, and Swedish: kåta) is a temporary dwelling used by the Sami people of northern Scandinavia. It has a design similar to a Native American tipi but is less vertical and more stable in high winds. It enables the indigenous cultures of the treeless plains of northern Scandinavia and the high arctic of Eurasia to follow their reindeer herds.

    A goahti (Northern Sámi), goahte (Lule Sámi), gåhte (Pite Sámi), gåhtie (Ume Sámi) or gåetie (Southern Sámi), (also gábma). Norwegian: gamme, Finnish: kota, Swedish: kåta), is a Sami hut,0,131382,62159
  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 938

  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 938

    The Ajanta Caves are 30 (approximately) rock-cut Buddhist cave monuments which date from the 2nd century BCE to about 480 CE in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra state of India. The caves include paintings and rock-cut sculptures described as among the finest surviving examples of ancient Indian art, particularly expressive paintings that present emotion through gesture, pose and form.

    According to UNESCO, these are masterpieces of Buddhist religious art that influenced the Indian art that followed. The caves were built in two phases, the first phase starting around the 2nd century BCE, while the second phase was built around 400–650 CE, according to older accounts, or in a brief period of 460–480 CE according to later scholarship. The site is a protected monument in the care of the Archaeological Survey of India, and since 1983, the Ajanta Caves have been a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

    The Ajanta Caves constitute ancient monasteries and worship-halls of different Buddhist traditions carved into a 75-metre (246 ft) wall of rock. The caves also present paintings depicting the past lives and rebirths of the Buddha, pictorial tales from Aryasura's Jatakamala, and rock-cut sculptures of Buddhist deities. Textual records suggest that these caves served as a monsoon retreat for monks, as well as a resting site for merchants and pilgrims in ancient India. While vivid colours and mural wall-painting were abundant in Indian history as evidenced by historical records, Caves 16, 17, 1 and 2 of Ajanta form the largest corpus of surviving ancient Indian wall-painting.

    The Ajanta Caves are mentioned in the memoirs of several medieval-era Chinese Buddhist travellers to India and by a Mughal-era official of Akbar era in the early 17th century. They were covered by jungle until accidentally "discovered" and brought to Western attention in 1819 by a colonial British officer Captain John Smith on a tiger-hunting party. The caves are in the rocky northern wall of the U-shaped gorge of the river Waghur, in the Deccan plateau. Within the gorge are a number of waterfalls, audible from outside the caves when the river is high.

    Ajanta 63jpg

  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 938
    edited October 2019
    Reproduction of The Adoration of the Buddha, cave 17, Albert Hall Museum, Jaipur, India.

    Many foreigners are included as devotees attending the Buddha's descent from Trayastrimsa Heaven, Cave 17
    Another Persian-style foreign group, on the ceiling of Cave 1, one of the four such groups (one now missing) at the center of each quadrant of the ceiling.
    Foreigners attending the Buddha in Cave 17
    Foreigners on horses attending the Buddha in Cave 17

    Post edited by KingNaid on
  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 938
    Doggerland was an area of land, now submerged beneath the southern North Sea, that connected Britain to continental Europe. It was flooded by rising sea levels around 6500–6200 BC. Geological surveys have suggested that it stretched from where Britain's east coast now is to the present-day Netherlands, western coast of Germany, and peninsula of Jutland. It was probably a rich habitat with human habitation in the Mesolithic period, although rising sea levels gradually reduced it to low-lying islands before its final submergence, possibly following a tsunami caused by the Storegga Slide.

  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 938
    edited October 2019
    The Storr (Scottish Gaelic: An Stòr) is a rocky hill on the Trotternish peninsula of the Isle of Skye in Scotland. The hill presents a steep rocky eastern face overlooking the Sound of Raasay, contrasting with gentler grassy slopes to the west.

    The Storr is a prime example of the Trotternish landslip, the longest such feature in Great Britain. It is the type locality for the mineral gyrolite.

    The area in front of the cliffs of the Storr is known as the Sanctuary. This has a number of weirdly shaped rock pinnacles, the remnants of ancient landslips.

    A well-constructed path, used by many sightseers, leaves the A855 just north of Loch Leathan. It heads up through a clearfell area that was formerly a conifer plantation. Most day-trippers are content simply to wander around the Sanctuary

    Related image
    The Storr by Grinnerjpg

    Raasay (Scottish Gaelic: Ratharsair) or the Isle of Raasay is an island between the Isle of Skye and the mainland of Scotland. It is separated from Skye by the Sound of Raasay and from Applecross by the Inner Sound. It is most famous for being the birthplace of Gaelic poet Sorley MacLean, an important figure in the Scottish Renaissance.

    Traditionally the home of Clan MacSween, the island was ruled by the MacLeods from the 15th to the 19th century.

    The spread of Scots culture from Dalriada north of Ardnamurchan is poorly understood and little is recorded of Raasay's early Christian period. 

    Following Viking expeditions to the islands they called the Suðreyjar in the eighth century, Raasay became part of the Norse Kingdom of the Isles and for much of the period religious observance came under the jurisdiction of the Bishopric of the Isles. The Hebrides were yielded to the Kingdom of Scotland as a result of the 1266 Treaty of Perth,[c] after which time control of the islands north of Ardnamurchan was in the hands of the Earls of Ross. In addition to the name "Raasay" itself, placenames such as Arnish (eagle headland), Suidhisnis (seething headland) and Eyre (beach or sand spit) are a legacy of the Norse presence.

    Tradition has it that Clan MacSween originally held title to Raasay but there is no written record of this. It is known that the island was ruled by the MacLeods from 1518

    Post edited by KingNaid on
  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 938
    The classic Indian epics, such as the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, and the Puranas, refer to diverse kinds of beings, describing them as superhuman or subhuman and other worldly extraterrestrials came to inhabit the living world. Many of these tribes have a strong historical basis, while the supernatural and fantastic aspects are considered literary speculation. These groups include Deva, Asura, Gandharva, Yaksha, Kinnara, Kimpurusha, Rakshasa, Naga, Suparna, Vanara, Vidyadhara, Valakhilyas, Pisacha, Rudra, Aditya, Danava, Marut, Nivatakavacha, Daitya, Kalakeyas and Vasus.

    In Hindu mythology, a kinnara is a paradigmatic lover, a celestial musician, half-human and half-horse (India). In South-east Asia, two of the most beloved mythological characters are the benevolent half-human, half-bird creatures known as the Kinnara and Kinnari, which are believed to come from the Himalayas and often watch over the well-being of humans in times of trouble or danger. Their character is clarified in the Adi parva of the Mahabharata, where they say:

    We are everlasting lover and beloved. We never separate. We are eternally husband and wife; never do we become mother and father. No offspring is seen in our lap. We are lover and beloved ever-embracing. In between us we do not permit any third creature demanding affection. Our life is a life of perpetual pleasure.

    They are also featured in a number of Buddhist texts, including the Lotus Sutra. An ancient Indian string instrument is known as the Kinnari Veena.

    In Southeast Asian mythology, Kinnaris, the female counterpart of Kinnaras, are depicted as half-bird, half-woman creatures.

    Pishachas (Sanskrit: पिशाच, Piśāca) are flesh-eating demons in Hindu theology. Theology describes them as the sons of either Krodha (figuratively "Anger") or as Dakṣa’s daughter Piśāca. They have been described to bulging veins and protruding, red eyes. They are believed to have their own languages, known as Paiśāci.

    According to one legend, they are sons of Kashyapa and Krodhavasa, one of the daughters of Prajapati Daksha. The Nilamat Puran of the 7th century mentions the valley of Kashmir being inhabited by two tribes: the Nagas and the Pisachas.

    Piśācas like darkness and traditionally are depicted as haunting cremation grounds along with other monsters like bhutas and vetālas.

    The origin of Piśāca is unknown, although it may be the personification of the will-o'-the-wisp. Pāṇini, in his Aṣṭādhyāyi, described the Piśāca as a "warrior clan". In the Mahābhārata, the "Piśāca people" (equivalent to the modern day Dardic people, as in the literature Dardic group of languages is sometimes also called Piśāca) are said to live in barbaric parts of Hindu Afghanistan and they are descendants of Prajāpati Kaśyapa.
    The etymology of the name suggests that it is spoken by piśācas, "ghouls".

    The Dards are a group of Indo-Aryan peoples found predominantly in northern Pakistan, north India, and eastern Afghanistan.

    Kelaash Peoplejpg
  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 938
    edited October 2019
    "According to Robert Graves, Miletus' name tentatively suggests "red earth" miltos referring to the fact that Cretans had a complexion that was redder than that of the Greeks." 

    Minoan Town Fresco Akrotiri Thera"cup_bearer"_fresco_Knossos_Heraklion_museum_Crete_Greece.jpg
    FileThe cup bearer fresco Knossos Heraklion museum Crete Greecejpg
    Minoan Bull Leaping
    Hagia Triada sarcophagus detail c 1400 BCE limestone and fresco Archaeological Museum of Heraklion photo Olaf Tausch CC BY 30
    The Copts were famous for their outstanding weaving skills and exported their products to other Mediterranean countries. The textiles were mainly made of plain linen in which the entire surface was decorated with dyed woolen threads. This technique is called tapestry. One of the finest examples was probably used as a curtain and is decorated with a dark-skinned piper (on the right) and figures of dancers, warriors and men on horseback in Greek style (on the left).

    "Cretans had a complexion that was redder than that of the Greeks"
    Loading Image
    This tunic was a garment commonly worn by males in Greco-Roman civilizations. At the top of this tunic, an arcade encloses figures of dancers and warriors. Below, two vertical panels with warriors and dancers alternate with roundels amid human busts.
    Loading Image
    Image result for wadsworth atheneum museum of art spartan
  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 938


    "The aim of this paper is to re-examine the painted fragments discovered by Arthur Evans and his team in the Throne Room at Knossos in 1900. We have tried to integrate systematically the extant archival data stored in the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford and the archaeological remains at Herakleion in an attempt to retrace the history of discovery of the paintings. In our view, the iconography of this programme places its execution at the onset of Late Minoan (LM) II. We see the inclusion of both ‘traditional’ (Neopalatial) and ‘innovative’ (Final Palatial) elements in the composition as suggestive of an attempt on behalf of the artist(s) and the commissioner(s) to blend artistic traditions in the creation of a new, yet still recognisable, image of power. We assess the implications stemming from this suggestion and interpret the decorative programme of the Throne Room at Knossos as part and expression of the emergence of the wanax ideology."

    "The Throne Room at Knossos and its painted decoration are one of the most celebrated, yet highly contentious, topics of discussion in Aegean archaeology. Previous bibliography is marred by substantial confusion and misunderstanding stemming from a significant amount of imaginative speculation that has been piled over the years on top of Arthur Evans's Throne Room reconstructions. The latter are in themselves highly suspect and dependent on Evans's own firm ideas about the nature of Knossian society, its religion and symbolism.

    The recent redevelopment of the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford and of the Archaeological Museum in Herakleion presented us with an excellent opportunity to re-examine the painted fragments discovered by Evans and his team in the Throne Room in 1900. It allowed us to retrace their excavation and to bring together the extant archival data, stored in Oxford, and the archaeological remains, housed at Herakleion, in an effort to identify the painted fragments that today can be attributed safely to the Knossian Throne Room. The conservation of some of the fragments, in preparation for their display at Herakleion, has helped clarify further the decorative programme of the Throne Room and of the paint layers and techniques used in its decoration.

    For archaeological and stylistic reasons, discussed below, a Late Minoan (LM) II date is favoured for the execution of the Throne Room's decorative programme, which included ‘traditional’ (i.e. Neopalatial) and ‘innovative’ (i.e. Final Palatial) elements. The coexistence of these elements is, in our view, best interpreted as a conscious effort of the artist(s) and their commissioners to create a new, yet still recognisable, image of power – an image that represents an artistic as well as a political turning point between the Neopalatial and Final Palatial periods. Within this context, the Throne Room's decorative programme can be understood as part and parcel of a new, emerging, ideology – one that was based on the transformation and subversion of material culture, and of images in particular."

  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 938

    The Renaissance in Scotland was a cultural, intellectual and artistic movement in Scotland, from the late fifteenth century to the beginning of the seventeenth century. It is associated with the pan-European Renaissance that is usually regarded as beginning in Italy in the late fourteenth century and reaching northern Europe as a Northern Renaissance in the fifteenth century. It involved an attempt to revive the principles of the classical era, including humanism, a spirit of scholarly enquiry, scepticism, and concepts of balance and proportion. Since the twentieth century, the uniqueness and unity of the Renaissance has been challenged by historians, but significant changes in Scotland can be seen to have taken place in education, intellectual life, literature, art, architecture, music, science and politics.

    The court was central to the patronage and dissemination of Renaissance works and ideas. It was also central to the staging of lavish display that portrayed the political and religious role of the monarchy. The Renaissance led to the adoption of ideas of imperial monarchy, encouraging the Scottish crown to join the new monarchies by asserting imperial jurisdiction and distinction. The growing emphasis on education in the Middle Ages became part of a humanist and then Protestant programme to extend and reform learning. It resulted in the expansion of the school system and the foundation of six university colleges by the end of the sixteenth century. Relatively large numbers of Scottish scholars studied on the continent or in England and some, such as Hector Boece, John Mair, Andrew Melville and George Buchanan, returned to Scotland to play a major part in developing Scottish intellectual life. Vernacular works in Scots began to emerge in the fifteenth century, while Latin remained a major literary language. With the patronage of James V and James VI, writers included William Stewart, John Bellenden, David Lyndsay, William Fowler and Alexander Montgomerie.

    In the sixteenth century, Scottish kings – particularly James V – built palaces in Renaissance style, beginning at Linlithgow. The trend soon spread to members of the aristocracy. Painting was strongly influenced by Flemish painting, with works commissioned from the continent and Flemings serving as court artists. While church art suffered iconoclasm and a loss of patronage as a result of the Reformation, house decoration and portraiture became significant for the wealthy, with George Jamesone emerging as the first major named artist in the early seventeenth century. Music also incorporated wider European influences although the Reformation caused a move from complex polyphonic church music to the simpler singing of metrical psalms. Combined with the Union of Crowns in 1603, the Reformation also removed the church and the court as sources of patronage, changing the direction of artistic creation and limiting its scope. In the early seventeenth century the major elements of the Renaissance began to give way to Mannerism and the Baroque.
    The Irish Literary Revival (also called the Irish Literary Renaissance, nicknamed the Celtic Twilight) was a flowering of Irish literary talent in the late 19th and early 20th century.
    The literary movement was associated with a revival of interest in Ireland's Gaelic heritage and the growth of Irish nationalism from the middle of the 19th century. The poetry of James Clarence Mangan and Samuel Ferguson and Standish James O'Grady's History of Ireland: Heroic Period were influential in shaping the minds of the following generations.
  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 938

    The Bengali Renaissance or simply Bengal Renaissance, (Bengali: বাংলার নবজাগরণ; Banglār Nobojāgoroṇ) was a cultural, social, intellectual and artistic movement in Bengal region in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent during the period of the British Indian Empire, from the nineteenth century to the early twentieth century dominated by Bengalis.

    Historian Nitish Sengupta describes the Bengal Renaissance as taking place from Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1775–1833) through Rabindranath Tagore (1861–1941). According to historian Sumit Sarkar, nineteenth-century Bengali religious and social reformers, scholars, literary giants, journalists, patriotic orators and scientists were revered and regarded with nostalgia in the early and mid-twentieth century. In the early 1970s, however, a more critical view emerged. "Few serious scholars could deny that nineteenth-century Bengal had fallen considerably short of the alleged Italian prototype", wrote Sarkar. Although in 1990 the "average educated Bengali" still admired the Bengali Renaissance, "most intellectuals who would like to consider themselves radical and sophisticated", no longer glorified the period.

    During this period, Bengal witnessed an intellectual awakening that is in some way similar to the Renaissance in Europe during the 16th century, although Europeans of that age were not confronted with the challenge and influence of alien colonialism. This movement questioned existing orthodoxies, particularly with respect to women, marriage, the dowry system, the caste system, and religion. One of the earliest social movements that emerged during this time was the Young Bengal movement, that espoused rationalism and atheism as the common denominators of civil conduct among upper caste educated Hindus.

    Contributing institutions

  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 938
    The Asiatic Society was founded by civil servant Sir William Jones on 15 January 1784 in a meeting presided over by Sir William Jones, Justice of the Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William at the Fort William in Calcutta, then capital of the British Raj, to enhance and further the cause of Oriental research.

    "The bounds of investigations will be the geographical limits of Asia, and within these limits its enquiries will be extended to whatever is performed by man or produced by nature."

    ort William College, Calcutta (variant College of Fort William) (1800 - 1854) was an academy of Oriental studies and a centre of learning. Founded on 10 July 1800, within the Fort William complex in Calcutta by Lord Wellesley, then Governor-General of British India. The statute of foundation was passed on 4 May 1800, to commemorate the first anniversary of the victory over Tipu Sultan at Seringapatam. Thousands of books were translated from Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, Bengali, Hindi, and Urdu into English at this institution. This college also promoted the printing and publishing of Urdu books

    "The historical Vedic religion (also known as Vedism or ancient Hinduism[note 1]) refers to the religious ideas and practices among most Indo-Aryan-speaking peoples of ancient India after about 1500 BCE. These ideas and practices are found in the Vedic texts, and they were one of the major influences that shaped contemporary Hinduism. According to Heinrich von Stietencron, in the 19th century western publications, the Vedic religion was believed to be different from and unrelated to Hinduism. The Hindu religion was thought to be linked to the Hindu epics and the Puranas through sects based on Purohita, Tantras and Bhakti. In the 20th century, a better understanding of the Vedic religion, its shared heritage and theology with contemporary Hinduism, has led scholars to view the historical Vedic religion as ancestral to "Hinduism". The Hindu reform movements and the Neo-Vedanta have emphasized the Vedic heritage and "ancient Hinduism", and this term has been co-opted by some Hindus. Vedic religion is now generally accepted to be a predecessor of Hinduism, but they are not the same because the textual evidence suggests significant differences between the two."
  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 938

    The Jindyworobak Movement was an Australian literary movement of the 1930s and 1940s whose white members, mostly poets, sought to contribute to a uniquely Australian culture through the integration of Indigenous Australian subjects, language and mythology. The movement's stated aim was to "free Australian art from whatever alien influences trammel it" and create works based on an engagement with the Australian landscape and an "understanding of Australia's history and traditions, primeval, colonial and modern".

    The movement began in Adelaide, South Australia, in 1937, when Rex Ingamells and other poets founded the Jindyworobak Club. Ingamells outlined the movement's aims in an address entitled On Environmental Values (1937). "Jindyworobak" comes from the Woiwurrung language, formerly spoken around modern-day Melbourne, meaning "to join" or "to annex".

    Annexation (Latin ad, to, and nexus, joining) is the administrative action and concept in international law relating to the forcible acquisition of one state's territory by another state and is generally held to be an illegal act. It is distinct from conquest, which refers to the acquisition of control over a territory involving a change of sovereignty, and differs from cession, in which territory is given or sold through treaty, since annexation is a unilateral act where territory is seized and held by one state. It usually follows military occupation of a territory.

    "append or add as an extra or subordinate part, especially to a document."

    Starting off as a literary club in Adelaide, South Australia in 1938, the Jindyworobak movement was supported by many Australian artists, poets, and writers. Many were fascinated by Indigenous Australian culture and the Outback, and desired to improve the white Australian's understanding and appreciation of them. Other features came into play, among them white Australia's increasing alienation from its European origins; the Depression of the 1930s which recalled the economic troubles of the end of the 19th century; an increasingly urban or suburban Australian population alienated from the wild Australia of the Outback etc.; the First World War and the coming of World War II and also the coming of early mass market media in the form of the radio, recordings, newspapers and magazines. Sense of place was particularly important to the Jindyworobak movement
  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 938
    edited October 2019

    The modern European gene pool was formed when three ancient populations mixed within the last 7,000 years, Nature journal reports.

    Blue-eyed, swarthy hunters mingled with brown-eyed, pale skinned farmers as the latter swept into Europe from the Near East.

    But another, mysterious population with Siberian affinities also contributed to the genetic landscape of the continent.

    The findings are based on analysis of genomes from nine ancient Europeans.

    Agriculture originated in the Near East - in modern Syria, Iraq and Israel - before expanding into Europe around 7,500 years ago.

    It really does look like the indigenous West European hunter gatherers had this striking combination of dark skin and blue eyes that doesn't exist any more
    Prof David Reich, Harvard Medical School

    Cydnee Black blue eyes

    Multiple lines of evidence suggested this new way of life was spread by a wave of migrants, who interbred with the indigenous European hunter-gatherers they encountered on the way.

    If you look at all the reconstructions of Mesolithic people on the internet, they are always depicted as fair skinned... This shows the opposite

    Prof Carles Lalueza-Fox, Institute of Evolutionary Biology (CSIC - UPF)

    The setting: Europe, about 7,500 years ago.

    Agriculture was sweeping in from the Near East, bringing early farmers into contact with hunter-gatherers who had already been living in Europe for tens of thousands of years.

    Genetic and archaeological research in the last 10 years has revealed that almost all present-day Europeans descend from the mixing of these two ancient populations. But it turns out that’s not the full story.

    Researchers at Harvard Medical School and the University of Tübingen in Germany have now documented a genetic contribution from a third ancestor: Ancient North Eurasians. This group appears to have contributed DNA to present-day Europeans as well as to the people who travelled across the Bering Strait into the Americas more than 15,000 years ago.

    “Prior to this paper, the models we had for European ancestry were two-way mixtures. We show that there are three groups,” said David Reich, professor of genetics at HMS and co-senior author of the study.

    “This also explains the recently discovered genetic connection between Europeans and Native Americans,” Reich added. “The same Ancient North Eurasian group contributed to both of them.”

    The research team also discovered that ancient Near Eastern farmers and their European descendants can trace much of their ancestry to a previously unknown, even older lineage called the Basal Eurasians.
    Post edited by KingNaid on
  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 938
    edited October 2019
    he Los Estoraques Unique Natural Area (Spanish: Área Natural Única Los Estoraques) is one of the smaller national parks, covering only 6 km2 (2.3 sq mi), located in the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia in the Norte de Santander Department. The landscape is shaped by large brownstone pedestals and columns formed by thousands of years of erosion. The area is part of the Catatumbo River basin and elevation range from 1,450 to 1,900 meters above mean sea level. It was declared an Área Natural Única (Unique Natural Area) in 1998.

    Los Estoraques Norte de Santander Colombia by Edgarpng
    Small Heritage Towns of Colombia La Playa de Beln eroded landscape Los Estoraques Unique Natural Area is just outside town The landscape looks barren but the valley is apparently fertile as it is full of vegetable gardens
    Related image
    Related imageRelated image

    Post edited by KingNaid on
Sign In or Register to comment.