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#Nephilim/Neanderthals/Mutants/Jinn/Tao Tei/Asuras/Fomorian/Alexanders Walls/Gog and Magog



  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 1,875
    edited July 2019

    "Four Barbarians was a derogatory Chinese term[citation needed] for various ancient non-Chinese peoples bordering ancient China, namely, the Dōngyí "Eastern Barbarians", Nánmán "Southern Barbarians", Xīróng 西 "Western Barbarians", and Běidí "Northern Barbarians"."

    "Yi, Man, Rong, and Di were further generalized into compounds (such as Róngdí, Mányí, and Mányíróngdí) denoting "non-Chinese; foreigners; barbarians." Hieroglyphics refer to these groups all have a section for indicating "animal/insect". Nowadays, Chinese characters have omitted this symbolic section, so the Chinese characters quoted above only have the "dog symbol" in the word .

    The Yi ("Barbarian") had both specific denotations (e.g., Huaiyi 淮夷 "Huai River barbarians" and Xiyi 西夷 "western barbarians") and generalized references to "barbarian" (e.g., Sìyí "Four Barbarians"). The sinologist Edwin G. Pulleyblank (1983: 440) says the name Yi "furnished the primary Chinese term for 'barbarian'," but "Paradoxically the Yi were considered the most civilized of the non-Chinese peoples."

    The Old Chinese pronunciation of Modern Chinese 夷 is reconstructed as *‍dyər (Bernhard Karlgren), *ɤier (Zhou Fagao), *ləj (William H. Baxter), and *l(ə)i (Axel Schuessler). Schuessler (2007: 563) defines Yi as "The name of non-Chinese tribes, prob[ably] Austroasiatic, to the east and southeast of the central plain (Shandong, Huái River basin), since the Spring and Autumn period also a general word for 'barbarian'", and proposes a "sea" etymology, "Since the ancient Yuè (=Viet) word for 'sea' is said to have been , the people's name might have originated as referring to people living by the sea"."

    "The modern character for yi, like the Qin Dynasty seal script, is composed of "big" and "bow" – but the earliest Shang Dynasty oracle bone script was used interchangeably for yi and shi "corpse", depicting a person with bent back and dangling legs (Hanyu Da Zidian 1986 1: 527). The archeologist and scholar Guo Moruo believed the oracle graph for yi denotes "a dead body, i.e., the killed enemy", while the bronze graph denotes "a man bound by a rope, i.e., a prisoner or slave" (Huang 2013: 462). Ignoring this historical paleography, the Chinese historian K. C. Wu (1982: 107–108) claimed that Yi 夷 should not be translated as "barbarian" because the modern graph implies a big person carrying a bow, someone to perhaps be feared or respected, but not to be despised. The (121 CE) Shuowen Jiezi character dictionary, defines yi 夷 as "men of the east” 東方之人也. The scholar Léon Wieger provided multiple definitions to the term yi: “The men 大 armed with bows 弓, the primitive inhabitants, barbarians, borderers of the Eastern Sea, inhabitants of the South-West countries.""

    "The prophecy describes a period of time when a quarter of the population of the earth would be killed by a combination of wars, famine and disease. The prophecy describes the causes as 1) a conquering people whose weapon was the bow "I looked, and there before me was a white horse! Its rider held a bow, and he was given a crown, and he rode out as a conqueror bent on conquest", 2) as people engaged in constant war "Then another horse came out, a fiery red one. Its rider was given power to take peace from the earth and to make men slay each other. To him was given a large sword", 3) high food prices leading to famine "before me was a black horse! Its rider was holding a pair of scales in his hand. Then I heard what sounded like a voice among the four living creatures, saying, "A quart of wheat for a day's wages, and three quarts of barley for a day's wages, and do not damage the oil and the wine!" and 4) disease "I looked and there before me was a pale horse! Its rider was named Death, and Hades was following close behind him." These four are then summed up as follows "They were given power over a fourth of the earth to kill by the sword (war), famine, and plague and by the wild beasts of the earth". The sword refers to the first two horsemen, famine to the third, and plague and beasts of the earth to the fourth."
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  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 1,875
    "We then turn to Poe’s historical inspiration for this scene, namely a 1393 celebration held in the Parisian court of Charles VI, a masque which has come to be known as Bal des Sauvages (Ball of the Wild Men) or more commonly the Bal des Ardents (Ball of the Burning Men).  As you may guess, the Wild Man suits donned for this event also proved quite flammable, leaving four courtiers dead.  Graphic details are provided. While Charles also wore one of these less than safe costumes, he was not injured in the event but went on to suffer from troubles of a different sort, as we later explore."

    Charles VI of France

    Charles VI de France - Dialogues de Pierre Salmon - Bib de Genve MsFr165f4jpg
    "On 29 January 1393, a masked ball, which became known as the Bal des Ardents ("Ball of the Burning Men") because of the tragedy that ensued, had been organized by Isabeau of Bavaria to celebrate the wedding of one of her ladies-in-waiting at the Hôtel Saint-Pol. At the suggestion of Huguet de Guisay, the king and four other lords dressed up as wild men and danced about. They were dressed "in costumes of linen cloth sewn onto their bodies and soaked in resinous wax or pitch to hold a covering of frazzled hemp, so that they appeared shaggy & hairy from head to foot". At the suggestion of one Yvain de Foix, the king commanded that the torch-bearers were to stand at the side of the room. Nonetheless, the king's brother Louis I, Duke of Orléans, who had arrived late, approached with a lighted torch in order to discover the identity of the masqueraders, and accidentally set one of them on fire. There was panic as the flames spread. The Duchess of Berry threw the train of her gown over the king in order to protect him. Several knights who tried to put out the flames were severely burned. Four of the wild men perished: Charles de Poitiers, son of the Count of Valentinois; Huguet de Guisay; Yvain de Foix; and the Count of Joigny. Another – Jean, son of the Lord of Nantouillet – saved himself by jumping into a dishwater tub."

    Expulsion of the Jews, 1394

    On 17 September 1394, Charles suddenly published an ordinance in which he declared, in substance, that for a long time he had been taking note of the many complaints provoked by the excesses and misdemeanors that the Jews had committed against Christians, and that the prosecutors, having made several investigations, had discovered many violations by the Jews of the agreement they had made with him. Therefore, he decreed, as an irrevocable law and statute, that thenceforth no Jew should dwell in his domains ("Ordonnances", vii. 675). According to the Religieux de St. Denis, the king signed this decree at the insistence of the queen ("Chron. de Charles VI." ii. 119). The decree was not immediately enforced, a respite being granted to the Jews in order that they might sell their property and pay their debts. Those indebted to them were enjoined to redeem their obligations within a set time, otherwise their pledges held in pawn were to be sold by the Jews. The provost was to escort the Jews to the frontier of the kingdom. Subsequently, the king released the Christians from their debts.
  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 1,875

    "Classical figures that blended into the Wild Man mythos are discussed: the satyrs, fauns, and particularly Silvanus, as are other pagan figures that tended to overlap with the Wild Man —  the Dusios of the Celts of Gaul, the schrat of German-speaking lands, and the ogre, a figure seemed particularly influential in French and Italian traditions.

    While pagan versions of Wild Men were regarded by the Church as demonic, the image of the Wild Man was in some occasions adopted into saint iconography.  We see a number of examples drawn from the era of the Desert Fathers, when solitary hermitage in the wild was commonly understood to be a path to God.  Medieval artists, we learn, tended to take the “wild” aspect of these figures, rather literally, and certain church legends seem to support this."

    St Mary of Egypt from the Dunois Book of Hours
    St. Mary of Egypt from the Dunois Book of Hours.

    "Real world figures equated with the Wild Man are also examined.  We meet the first historical example via a painting of the 16th-century figure, Petrus Gonsalvus, an object in the famous Wunderkammer (“cabinet of curiosities”) collection at Ambras Castle in Innsbruck, Austria.  Other items in the collection, including a disturbing portraits of a deformed court jester and of a Hungarian nobleman living with lance embedded in his head are mentioned, as is an odd pop song related to one of P.T. Barnum’s sideshow personalities, Jo-Jo the Dog-faced Boy.  A clip from Jean Cocteau’s 1946 adaptation of “Beauty and the Beast” is heard."
    Barbara van Beck by William Richardson
    "We conclude the show returning our attention to France’s Charles VI, hearing the story of his mental breakdown and behaviors and delusions that earned him the epitaph, “Charles the Mad.”"
    Charles VI accosted by mysterious stranger before his mental breakdown
  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 1,875
    The Werewolf a wild man walks on all fours toward the r with a baby in his mouth several bodyparts of other victims are scattered on the ground a cottage with woman and children in the l background the Saxon shields are at the upper centre-r with vertical fold  c 1510-15 Woodcut
    "The Werewolf; a wild man walks on all fours toward the r with a baby in his mouth; several bodyparts of other victims are scattered on the ground; a cottage with woman and children in the l background; the Saxon shields are at the upper centre-r; with vertical fold. c. 1510-15 Woodcut"

    The Penance of Saint John Chrisostom,1509

    Lucas Cranach the Elder German

  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 1,875
    edited July 2019
    There is evidence for interbreeding between archaic and modern humans during the Middle Paleolithic and early Upper Paleolithic. The interbreeding happened in several independent events that included Neanderthals and Denisovans, as well as several unidentified hominins.

    Most of these guys have been around for centuries and its time we stopped paying attention to them
    The Last Judgment punishment of Pride detail - Franco - Flemish anonymous artist 1474-1484 Fresco 64 m x 156 m Cathdrale Ste-Ccile Cathedral of St Cecilia of Albi
    devil carrying his soul basket - Holkham Bible, England ca. 1320-1330
    devil carrying his soul basket - Holkham Bible England ca 1320-1330
    Satan San Petronio and Bologna
    ROMANESQUE SCULPTOR, FrenchTympanum (detail)1125-35StoneAbbey Church of Sainte-Foy, Conques
    ROMANESQUE SCULPTOR FrenchTympanum detail1125-35StoneAbbey Church of Sainte-Foy Conques
    15 Demons That Have Been Ruining Our Lives Since The Middle Ages
    The baby dragons trying to protect israelite

    This exhibition features selected works from LSU Libraries Special Collections that shed light on the centuries-old quest for
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  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 1,875
    edited July 2019
    Image result for tasmanian tiger
    The thylacine (/ˈθaɪləsiːn/ THY-lə-seen, or /ˈθaɪləsaɪn/ THY-lə-syne, also /ˈθaɪləsɪn/; (from Ancient Greek θύλακος thúlakos, "pouch, sack" + Latin -inus "-ine") (Thylacinus cynocephalus), now extinct, is one of the largest known carnivorous marsupials, evolving about 4 million years ago. The last known live animal was captured in 1933 in Tasmania. It is commonly known as the Tasmanian tiger because of its striped lower back, or the Tasmanian wolf because of its canid-like characteristics. It was native to Tasmania, New Guinea, and the Australian mainland.

    The thylacine was relatively shy and nocturnal, with the general appearance of a medium-to-large-size dog, except for its stiff tail and abdominal pouch similar to a kangaroo, and dark transverse stripes that radiated from the top of its back, reminiscent of a tiger. The thylacine was a formidable apex predator, though exactly how large its prey animals were is disputed. Because of convergent evolution it displayed a form and adaptations similar to the tiger and wolf of the Northern Hemisphere, even though not related. Its closest living relative is either the Tasmanian devil or the numbat. The thylacine was one of only two marsupials to have a pouch in both sexes: the other is the water opossum. The pouch of the male thylacine served as a protective sheath covering the external reproductive organs.

    The thylacine had become extremely rare or extinct on the Australian mainland before British settlement of the continent, but it survived on the island of Tasmania along with several other endemic species, including the Tasmanian devil. Intensive hunting encouraged by bounties is generally blamed for its extinction
    Post edited by KingNaid on
  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 1,875
    edited August 2019
    The 2014 film Noah
    armadillo/canine hybrid
    Image result for dog in noah
    Related image
    Project Wight

    wight (n.)

    Old English wiht "living being, creature, person; something, anything," from Proto-Germanic *wihti- (source also of Old Saxon wiht "thing, demon," Dutch wicht "a little child," Old High German wiht "thing, creature, demon," German Wicht "creature, little child," Old Norse vettr "thing, creature," Swedish vätte "spirit of the earth, gnome,"

    This animated film is set on the planet Gandahar, where peace reigns and poverty is unknown. The utopian lifestyle is upset by reports of people at the outlying frontiers being turned to stone. Sent to investigate, Prince Sylvain (John Shea) crashes and is rescued by the Deformed, hideous genetic experiments gone wrong and left to fend for themselves. With their help, Sylvain discovers that the Metamorphosis, a gigantic brain also created in an experiment, is trying to destroy Gandahar.
    Related image
    Related image
    Post edited by KingNaid on
  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 1,875
    edited July 2019
    "Ifrit, also spelled as efreet, efrite, ifreet, afreet, afrite and afrit (Arabic: ʻIfrīt: عفريت, pl ʻAfārīt: عفاريت) are supernatural creatures in some Middle Eastern stories. In Islamic culture, they are usually a powerful type of jinn or identified with death-spirits."
    "The Chief-Ifrit sitting on the right listening to the complaints of jinn; Al-Malik al-Aswad, from the late 14th century Book of Wonders"

    "In translation, the term jinn can be interpreted as hidden from sight or the hidden ones. In Arabic, jinn defines a collective number and it derives from the root jnn or gnn which means to hide or to be hidden - thus implying the fact that jinn are not necessarily spirits, but they are hidden in their status in time, in space, and in darkness"
    From Jinn to Devil
    "Jinns from 17th or 18th century manuscript copy of “The Book of Wonders of the Age”
    Post edited by KingNaid on
  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 1,875
    edited July 2019
    The Great Wall of Gog and Magog
    "The wall of Alexander (Iskandar).From a manuscript of Kitab al-bulhan, mostly 14th century.Bodleian Library, University of Oxford, MS. Bodl. Or. 133, fol. 38"

    The Gog and Magog people being walled off by Alexander's forces.–Jean Wauquelin's Book of Alexander. Bruges, Belgium, 15th century
    Devil, Gog and Magog attack the Holy City. (from a 17th century Russian manuscript)
    Gog and Magog consuming humans. —Thomas de Kent's Roman de toute chevalerie, Paris manuscript, 14th century
  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 1,875
    edited July 2019
    The Monster of Gog and Magog, by al-Qazwini (1203–1283).
    Iskandar (Alexander) builds a wall to seal Yajuj and Majuj; here aided by dīvs (demons). Persian miniature from a Falnama, 16th century.
    "The legend of the Seal of Solomon was developed primarily by medieval Arabic writers, who related that the ring was engraved by HAWA and was given to the king directly from heaven. The ring was made from brass and iron, and the two parts were used to seal written commands to good and evil spirits, respectively.
    "The Book of Nativities (Kitab al-Mawalid), attributed to Abu Maʿschar al-Balkḥī and was later drawn by the painter Qanbar ‛Alī Shīrāzī published in 1300 AD. [أبو معشر جعفر بن محمد بن عمر البلخي]Abū Maʿshar, Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad al-Balkhī was a Persian astrologer, astronomer, and Islamic philosopher, thought to be the greatest astrologer of the Abbasid court in Baghdad."
  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 1,875
    "The Ten Incarnations of Vishnu, gouache on wood, cover of a Vishnu-purana manuscript, Bengal, possibly Bankura district, 1499; in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London."
    "Asuras (Sanskrit: असुर) are a class of divine beings or power-seeking deities related to the more benevolent Devas (also known as Suras) in Hinduism.

    Asuras are sometimes considered nature spirits. They battle constantly with the devas. Asuras are described in Indian texts as powerful superhuman demigods with good or bad qualities. The good Asuras are called Adityas and are led by Varuna, while the malevolent ones are called Danavas and are led by Vritra. In the earliest layer of Vedic texts Agni, Indra and other gods are also called Asuras, in the sense of them being "lords" of their respective domains, knowledge and abilities. In later Vedic and post-Vedic texts, the benevolent gods are called Devas, while malevolent Asuras compete against these Devas and are considered "enemy of the gods".

    Asuras are part of Indian mythology along with Devas, Yakshas (nature spirits) and Rakshasas (ghosts, ogres). Asuras feature in many cosmological theories in Hinduism"
    "A Rakshasa (Sanskrit: राक्षस, rākṣasa) is a mythological being in Hindu mythology. As this mythology influenced other religions, the rakshasa was later incorporated into Buddhism. Rakshasas are also called "Maneaters" (Nri-chakshas, Kravyads). A female rakshasa is known as a Rakshasi. A female Rakshasa in human form is a Rakshesha. The terms Asura and Rakshasa are sometimes used interchangeably."

  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 1,875
    edited July 2019

    "Daeva (Avestan: daēuua) is an Avestan language term for a particular sort of supernatural entity with disagreeable characteristics. In the Gathas, the oldest texts of the Zoroastrian canon, the daevas are "gods that are (to be) rejected". This meaning is – subject to interpretation – perhaps also evident in the Old Persian "daiva inscription" of the 5th century BCE. In the Younger Avesta, the daevas are divinities that promote chaos and disorder. In later tradition and folklore, the dēws (Zoroastrian Middle Persian; New Persian divs) are personifications of every imaginable evil.

    Daeva, the Iranian language term, should not be confused with the devas of Indian religions. While the word for the Vedic spirits and the word for the Zoroastrian entities are etymologically related, their function and thematic development is altogether different. The once-widespread notion that the radically different functions of Iranian daeva and Indic deva (and ahura versus asura) represented a prehistoric inversion of roles is no longer followed in 21st century academic discourse (see In comparison with Vedic usage for details).

    Equivalents for Avestan daeva in Iranian languages include Pashto, Balochi, Kurdish dêw, Persian dīv/deev, all of which apply to demons, monsters, and other villainous creatures. The Iranian word was borrowed into Old Armenian as dew, Georgian as devi, and Urdu as deo, with the same negative associations in those languages. In English, the word appears as daeva, div, deev, and in the 18th century fantasy novels of William Thomas Beckford as dive.

    It has been speculated that the concept of the daevas as a malevolent force may have been inspired from the Scythian gods."

    "Old Avestan daēuua or daēva derives from Old Iranian *daiva, which in turn derives from Indo-Iranian *daivá- "god", reflecting Proto-Indo-European *deywós with the same meaning. For other Indo-European derivatives, see Dyeus. The Vedic Sanskrit cognate of Avestan daēuua is devá-, continuing in later Indo-Aryan languages as dev.

    Because all cognates of Iranian *daiva have a positive connotation, but "no known Iranian dialect attests clearly and certainly the survival of a positive sense for [Old Iranian] *daiva-", in the 19th- and 20th-century a great deal of academic discussion revolved around questions of how Iranian daeva might have gained its derogatory meaning. This "fundamental fact of Iranian linguistics" is "impossible" to reconcile with the testimony of the Gathas, where the daevas, though rejected, were still evidently gods that continued to have a following. The same is true of the daiva inscription, where the daiva are the gods of (potential) rebels, but still evidently gods that continued to have a following."

    "In the Gathas, the oldest texts of Zoroastrianism and credited to Zoroaster himself, the daevas are not yet the demons that they would become in later Zoroastrianism; though their rejection is notable in the Gathas themselves. The Gathas speak of the daevas as a group, and do not mention individual daevas by name. In these ancient texts, the term daevas (also spelled 'daēuuas') occurs 19 times; wherein daevas are a distinct category of "quite genuine gods, who had, however, been rejected" In Yasna 32.3 and 46.1, the daevas are still worshipped by the Iranian peoples. Yasna 32.8 notes that some of the followers of Zoroaster had previously been followers of the daevas; though, the daevas are clearly identified with evil (e.g., Yasna 32.5).

    In the Gathas, daevas are censured as being incapable of discerning truth (asha-) from falsehood (druj-). They are consequently in "error" (aēnah-), but are never identified as drəguuaṇt- "people of the lie". The conclusion drawn from such ambiguity is that, at the time the Gathas were composed, "the process of rejection, negation, or daemonization of these gods was only just beginning, but, as the evidence is full of gaps and ambiguities, this impression may be erroneous"

    In Yasna 32.4, the daevas are revered by the Usij, described as a class of "false priests", devoid of goodness of mind and heart, and hostile to cattle and husbandry (Yasna 32.10-11, 44.20). Like the daevas that they follow, "the Usij are known throughout the seventh region of the earth as the offspring of aka mainyu, druj, and arrogance. (Yasna 32.3)". Yasna 30.6 suggests the daeva-worshipping priests debated frequently with Zoroaster, but failed to persuade him."
    Painting Legend The demon Akvn throwing Rustam into the Caspian with caption Gouache on paper Inscribed
  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 1,875
    edited September 2019
    "In the Persian epic of Shahnameh Div-e Sepid, or Div-e Sefid (Persian: دیو سپید‎ or دیو سفید, lit. White Demon), is the chieftain of the Divs (demons) of Mazandaran, he is a huge being. He possesses great physical strength and is skilled in sorcery and necromancy, he destroys the army of Kay Kavus by conjuring a dark storm of hail, boulders, and tree trunks using his magical skills. He then captures Kay Kavus, his commanders, and paladins; blinds them, and imprisons them in a dungeon; the greatest Persian mythical hero Rostam undertakes his "Seven Labors" to free his sovereign. At the end, Rostam slays Div-e Sefid and uses his heart and blood to cure the blindness of the king and the captured Persian heroes. Rostam also takes the Div's head as a helmet and is often pictured wearing it."

    "It is written in the Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society that the struggle between Rostam and the white demon represents a struggle between Persians and invaders from the north, from the Caspian provinces.

    The Div Sefid is believed by Joseph J. Reed to have been a northern prince. Warner believes that he is a personification of the Mazandaranians, who by their climate are an unhealthy pale colour; some scholars hold the opinion that these divs of Mazandaran are merely wild people of the forest. Others are of the opinion that they are a group of enemy kings of ancient Mazandaran (which might have been different from its modern location) and Tabaristan. Alexander Krappe theorized that Ahriman himself was believed to have white skin. P. Molesworth Sykes believes that the name "White Div" represents a white nation.

    According to one source Zal spoke of the horrid race of white-skinned people; this however contradicts with the fact that Zal was an albino himself"
    Rustam killing the White Div, a scene from the Shahnama (Book of kings) by Firdawsi; one of a group of six folios.
    Post edited by KingNaid on
  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 1,875
    edited July 2019

    The Great Wall of China at Jinshanling
    The Great Wall of China at Jinshanling-editjpg
    With the walls of the fort extending over 38 km, it is claimed to be the second-longest continuous wall after the Great Wall of China; the fort is among the largest fort complexes in the world, and the second largest fort in India after Chittor Fort.
    Image result for great wall of india
    The Chittor Fort or Chittorgarh is one of the largest forts in India's_Wall
    "Hadrian's Wall (Latin: Vallum Aelium), also called the Roman Wall, Picts' Wall, or Vallum Hadriani in Latin, was a defensive fortification in the Roman province of Britannia, begun in AD 122 in the reign of the emperor Hadrian. It ran from the banks of the River Tyne near the North Sea to the Solway Firth on the Irish Sea, and was the northern limit of the Roman Empire, immediately north of which were the lands of the northern Ancient Britons, including the Picts."

    "Hadrian's Wall was probably planned before Hadrian's visit to Britain in 122. According to restored sandstone fragments found in Jarrow which date from 118 or 119, it was Hadrian's wish to keep "intact the empire", which had been imposed on him via "divine instruction""

    "Although Hadrian's biographer wrote "[Hadrian] was the first to build a wall 80 miles long to separate the Romans from the barbarians", reasons for the construction of the wall vary, and no recording of an exact explanation survives."

    Post edited by KingNaid on
  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 1,875
    Anastasian Wall
    It is known that the wall had only a limited effectiveness, and the barbarians penetrated it many times, because the fortification's length made it difficult to defend the wall completely by a limited garrison, and also because the wall was not sufficiently strong due to its construction in haste.
    Anastasiusmauer Verlaufjpg
    Aurelian Walls
    "Aurelian's construction of the walls as an emergency measure was a reaction to the barbarian invasion of 270"
    "By the third century AD, the boundaries of Rome had grown far beyond the area enclosed by the old Servian Wall, built during the Republican period in the late 4th century BC. Rome had remained unfortified during the subsequent centuries of expansion and consolidation due to lack of hostile threats against the city. The citizens of Rome took great pride in knowing that Rome required no fortifications because of the stability brought by the Pax Romana and the protection of the Roman Army. However, the need for updated defences became acute during the crisis of the Third Century, when barbarian tribes flooded through the Germanic frontier and the Roman Army struggled to stop them. In 270, the barbarian Juthungi and Vandals invaded northern Italy, inflicting a severe defeat on the Romans at Placentia"
    Celio - le mura tra porta san Sebastiano e porta Ardeatina 1974JPG
    "Ranikot Fort (Sindhi: رني ڪوٽ‎, Urdu: قِلعہ رانی کوٹ‎) (also known as Rannikot) is a historical Talpur fort near Sann, Jamshoro District, Sindh, Pakistan.[2] Ranikot Fort is also known as The Great Wall of Sindh and is believed to be the world's largest fort,[3][4] with a circumference of approximately 32 kilometres (20 mi). The fort's ramparts have been compared to the Great Wall of China."
    "The original purpose and architects of Ranikot Fort are unknown. It was formerly believed that the fort was built during the regimes of the Sassanians, the Scythians, the Parthians or the Bactrian Greeks"
    Ranikot Fort - The Great Wall of Sindhjpg
  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 1,875
    "Cheolli Jangseong (lit. "Thousand Li Wall") in Korean history usually refers to the 11th-century northern defense structure built during the Goryeo dynasty in present-day North Korea"
    "King Deokjong ordered Yuso to build the defenses in response to incursions by the Khitan of the northwest and the Jurchen of the northeast"
    Cheolli Jangseongpng
    Great Wall of Gorgan
    Among archaeologists the wall is also known as "The Red Snake" because of the colour of its bricks. In Persian, it was popularized by the name "Alexander Barrier" (سد اسکندر‎ Sadd-i-Iskandar) or "Alexander's Wall", as Alexander the Great is thought by early Muslims to have passed through the Caspian Gates on his hasty march to Hyrcania and the east. It is also known as the "Anushirvân Barrier" (سد انوشیروان‎) and "Firuz/Piruz Barrier" (سد پیروز‎), and is officially referred to as "Gorgan Defence Wall"
    "The Long Wall was actually a succession of walls on the base of the Thracian Chersonese, the first of which was built in the late 6th century BC by the Athenian magnate Miltiades the Elder. Miltiades became the ruler of the Greek city-states of the Thracian Chersonese in 555 BC. Threatened by the warlike Apsinthians, the historian Herodotus (The Histories, VI.36.2) reports that "his first act was to wall off the isthmus of the Chersonese from the city of Cardia across to Pactya, so that the Apsinthians would not be able to harm them by invading their land". Herodotus recorded the length of the isthmus as thirty-six stadia, or approximately 7.2 km. It is unknown how long the wall of Miltiades stood, but apparently it was left derelict soon after, for in the 5th century it had to be rebuilt by Pericles (Plutarch, Pericles, 19.1), and was again restored in the early 4th century by the Spartan commander Dercylidas (Xenophon, Hellenica, III.2.8–10; Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca, XIV.38.7), to protect the peninsula from raids by the Thracian tribes. The wall continues to be mentioned by various Greek and Roman geographers throughout antiquity, but by the 4th century AD it was apparently in a dilapidated state, since in 400, the Goths under Gainas were easily able to cross it. The wall suffered further damage in an earthquake in 447, and sometime during the reign of Zeno, probably in 480, another earthquake destroyed 40 of its towers. The wall likewise presented little obstacle to a Hunnic raid in 540.
    "The exact location of the wall is unknown. The most likely localization is on the isthmus 5 km east of Bulair at the base of the peninsula, which is also its narrowest part and corresponds to the length mentioned by Herodotus and Xenophon. It is however possible that the various walls were built in different locations through the centuries."
  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 1,875
    edited July 2019
  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 1,875
    "The Mughal Empire or Mogul Empire, was a large empire in South Asia. It was founded in 1526 and was formally dissolved in 1857.
    The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526)."

    "Babur (Persian: بابر‎, romanizedBābur, lit. 'tiger'; 14 February 1483 – 26 December 1530), born Zahīr ud-Dīn Muhammad, was the founder and first Emperor of the Mughal dynasty in South Asia. He was a direct descendant of Emperor Timur (Tamerlane) from what is now Uzbekistan."

    "Timur (Persian: تیمور‎ Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), sometimes spelled Taimur and historically best known as Amir Timur or Tamerlane (Persian: تيمور لنگ‎ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol Persianate conqueror. As the founder of the Timurid Empire in and around modern-day Iran and Central Asia, he became the first ruler of the Timurid dynasty. According to John Joseph Saunders, Timur was "the product of an Islamized and Iranized society", and not steppe nomadic."

    "Timur was the last of the great nomadic conquerors of the Eurasian Steppe, and his empire set the stage for the rise of the more structured and lasting Gunpowder Empires in the 16th and 17th centuries.:1 Timur envisioned the restoration of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan"
  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 1,875
    edited August 2019

    "According to Thor Heyerdahlthe Norwegian mythology tells that the Scandinavian god Odin moved with his people to Norway from a land called Aser, in order to avoid Roman occupation. A 13th-century historian's description of Aser's origination matches that of Azerbaijan: east of the Caucasus mountains and the Black Sea.

    Heyerdahl and other scholar are convinced that people living in the area now known as Azerbaijan settled in Scandinavia around 100 AD. Roman troops arrived in Azerbaijan in 97 AD.

    Odin came from the land of the "Aser" (Aeser), and is, therefore, frequently referred to as "Asa-Odin" (Aser-Odin).
    Asgard or Ásegard is the realm of the Gods Aser in Norse religion and Norse mythology. The exact meaning of "Asgard is Aser Land or the Land of Aser". Modern day Scandinavians migrated north from the east of the Caucasus, Aserbaijan (Azerbaijan/Caucasian Albania) in prehistoric times. According to Icelandic Sagas, written in the 13th century, the Norse God Odin migrated from the east of the Caucasus, from Aserbaijan in the first century AD.

    Heyerdahl concluded that Azerbaijan and not northern Europe was the center from which the Caucasian people spread so that Chinese archaeologists would find their 4000 years old remains buried in northwestern China. He based that conclusion on early Norwegian sagas written down by the Icelander, Snorre Sturlason, before his death in 1241, (Snorri, The Sagas of the Viking Kings of Norway. English translation: J. M. Stenersens Forlag, Oslo 1987)."
    The Wild Hunt is a folklore motif (ATU E501) that historically occurs in European folklore. Wild Hunts typically involve a ghostly or supernatural group of hunters passing in wild pursuit. It is also about pagan youths engaging in hunting to have ecstatic practices to connect to Odin and the spirits of the ancestral dead, holding these events as their processions of certain times of the year. In the Norse lands the ancestral dead are usually said to be the souls of dead warriors, Odin or Odin and a consort leading the hunt and sometimes the hunt may tear men to shreds, bring dead loved ones or severed limbs to the hunter instead of achievements. Carrying out these practices is blessing the land, such as for a harvest, Germany popularised the Wild Hunt. Whether leading the dead or blessing the land, the attitude and the Wild Hunt's connotations is life, danger or limb, many men flee indoors when there is a Wild Hunt. In England it is Herne the Hunter that leads, rattling the chains of the dead, vegetation and vine god, keeper of the forest, though Norse legend suggests it is Odin in disguise. Exploring for the right rewards in amidst turmoil. The hunters may be either elves or fairies or the dead, and the leader of the hunt is often a named figure associated with Odin (or other reflections of the same god, such as Alemannic Wuodan in Wuotis Heer ("Wuodan's Army") of Central Switzerland, Swabia etc.), but may variously be a historical or legendary figure like Theodoric the Great, the Danish king Valdemar Atterdag, the Welsh psychopomp Gwyn ap Nudd, biblical figures such as Herod, Cain, Gabriel or the Devil, or an unidentified lost soul or spirit either male or female.

    Seeing the Wild Hunt was thought to presage some catastrophe such as war or plague, or at best the death of the one who witnessed it. People encountering the Hunt might also be abducted to the underworld or the fairy kingdom. In some instances, it was also believed that people's spirits could be pulled away during their sleep to join the cavalcade.

    The concept was developed based on comparative mythology by Jacob Grimm in Deutsche Mythologie (1835) as a folkloristic survival of Germanic pagan tradition, but comparable folk myths are found throughout Northern, Western and Central Europe. Grimm popularised the term Wilde Jagd ("Wild Hunt") for the phenomenon.

    Post edited by KingNaid on
  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 1,875
    The Mongol leader Temujin (AD 1167-1227), better known by his title Genghis Khan (Universal Ruler), was a man of strongly Nordish racial ancestry. According to the Persian historian Ab ul Ghasi, the tribal clan to which Temujin belonged, were known as the Bourchikoun (Grey-Eyed Men). [Günther (1934) 185; Lamb (1928) 22.] The ancestral mother and founder of this clan was known as Alan goa (beautiful Alan). According to the Mongol and Chinese legends on the subject, she was said to have been visited in her tent by a divine being, who possessed golden hair, a fair complexion and grey eyes. Shortly after this visitation, she gave birth to the first member of the Bourchikoun clan. [Günther (1934) 184.]

    Temujin himself was noted in Chinese descriptions of him, for his tall stature and heavy beard. [Günther (1934) 185.] We should also note the following depiction of Temujin's appearance, as given by Harold Lamb, in his biography of the great Khan:

    "He must have been tall, with high shoulders, his skin a whitish tan. His eyes, set far apart under a sloping forehead, did not slant. And his eyes were green, or blue-grey in the iris, with black pupils. Long reddish-brown hair fell in braids to his back." [Lamb (1928) 23.]

    Ab ul Ghasi also observed that the family of Yesugai, the father of Temujin, were known for the fact that their children often had fair complexions, and blue or grey eyes. [Günther (1934) 185.] Temujin's wife, Bourtai, bore a name which means "Grey-Eyed". [Lamb (1928) 23.] As both Günther (1934) and Lamb (1928) note, Temujin's relatives and descendants also possessed fair features: Temujin's son and successor Ogadei (1229-41), had gray eyes and red hair; Temujin's grandson Mangu (1251-9), had reddish eyebrows and a red-brown beard; Subatei, who conquered China, had a long, reddish beard. Indeed, it was said that people were surprised Kubilai Khan had dark hair and eyes, because most of Genghis Khan's descendants had reddish hair and blue eyes. [Günther (1934) 185.]

    Craniological evidence reveals that during the second millennium BC, Caucasians were predominant throughout much of Central Asia, and they maintained hegemony over several areas in the region. Thus, as Day notes: "Caucasoids not only outnumber[ed] Mongoloids in Xinjiang; they also predate[d] them." [Day (2001) 192.] Even into later eras, a Caucasian minority, strongly "Northern European" in physical type, was retained. [Day (2001) 138.] The Buddhist murals at Bezeklik (see below), in the eastern part of the Tarim Basin, near the Mongolian border, bear witness to the fact that just over a thousand years ago, rugged Caucasoids, with reddish-brown hair and blue eyes, could still be found in abundance. [Day (2001) 138-9.] Eickstedt argued that these murals depict individuals of Nordic and "Proto-Nordic" (protonordoidem) type. [Eickstedt (1934) 276.] At this point, it would be germane to remember the fact that it was precisely these features (reddish hair and blue eyes) that were found as an ancestral inheritance among the family of Genghis Khan.
  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 1,875
    edited August 2019

    Gogmagog ("Goemagot", "Goemagog") in the legend of the founding of Britain as written by Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae (1136). Gogmagog was a giant of Albion who was slain by Corineus, a member of the invading Trojan colonizers headed by Brutus. Corineus was subsequently granted a piece of land that was named "Cornwall" eponymously after him.

    The Historia details the encounter as follows: Gogmagog, accompanied by twenty fellow giants, attacked the Trojan settlement and caused great slaughter. The Trojans rallied back and killed all giants, except for "one detestable monster named Gogmagog, in stature twelve cubits, and of such prodigious strength that at one shake he pulled up an oak as if it had been a hazel wand". He is captured so that Corineus can wrestle with him. The giant breaks three of Corineus's ribs, which so enrages him that he picks up the giant and carries him on his shoulders to the top of a high rock, from which he throws the giant down into the sea. The place where he fell was known as "Gogmagog's Leap" to posterity.

    Michael Drayton's Poly-Olbion preserves the tale as well:

    Amongst the ragged Cleeves those monstrous giants sought:
    Who (of their dreadful kind) t'appal the Trojans brought
    Great Gogmagog, an oake that by the roots could teare;
    So mighty were (that time) the men who lived there:
    But, for the use of armes he did not understand
    (Except some rock or tree, that coming next to land,
    He raised out of the earth to execute his rage),
    He challenge makes for strength, and offereth there his gage,
    Which Corin taketh up, to answer by and by,
    Upon this sonne of earth his utmost power to try.

    Works of Irish mythology, including the Lebor Gabála Érenn (the Book of Invasions), expand on the Genesis account of Magog as the son of Japheth and make him the ancestor to the Irish through Partholón, leader of the first group to colonize Ireland after the Deluge, and a descendant of Magog, as also were the Milesians, the people of the 5th invasion of Ireland. Magog was also the progenitor of the Scythians, as well as of numerous other races across Europe and Central Asia. His three sons were Baath, Jobhath, and Fathochta.
    "Gog and Magog giving Paddy a Lift Out of the Mire." From Punch magazine, 1849. Here the giants stand for London, said to be assisting Ireland after the famine by purchasing land to improve trade.
    Post edited by KingNaid on
  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 1,875
    You might not know what a wodewose is, but you surely should. They are mythical forest creatures

    Name:  Wodewose, faunis ficariis*

    Range: The Wirral Peninsula, Africa

    Habitat: Forest

    Predators: Alexander the Great

    Threat Level: Endangered, possibly extinct

    *faunis ficariis is translated as 'wodewose' in the Wycliffite Bible (Jeremiah 50:39)
    Barking and wodewose
    Woodwose 2Wodeswose luttrell 2Wodewose paste-inWodewose bluesteelWodewose predatorWodewose wooing 72v
  • KingNaidKingNaid Member UncommonPosts: 1,875
    edited August 2019
    "Gwyn ap Nudd (Welsh pronunciation: [ˈɡwɨn ap ˈnɨːð], sometimes found with the antiquated spelling Gwynn ap Nudd) is a Welsh mythological figure, the king of the Tylwyth Teg or "fair folk" and ruler of the Welsh Otherworld, Annwn, and whose name means “white son of Nudd”. Described later on as a great warrior with a "blackened face", Gwyn is intimately associated with the otherworld in medieval Welsh literature, and is associated with the international tradition of the Wild Hunt."

    "In both Welsh and Irish mythologies, the Otherworld was believed to be located either on an island or underneath the earth"
    "The Otherworld is usually elusive, but various mythical heroes visit it either through chance or after being invited by one of its residents. They often reach it by entering ancient burial mounds or caves, or by going under water or across the western sea. Sometimes, the Otherworld is said to exist alongside our own located beyond the edge of the earth and intrudes into our world;

    Tylwyth Teg (Middle Welsh for "Fair Family" Welsh pronunciation: [ˈtəlwɪθ teːg]) is the most usual term in Wales for the mythological creatures corresponding to the fairy folk
    In later sources the tylwyth teg are described as fair-haired and covet golden-haired human children whom they kidnap, leaving changelings (or "crimbils") in their place. They dance and make fairy rings and they live underground or under the water. They bestow riches on those they favour but these gifts vanish if they are spoken of, and fairy maidens may become the wives of human men. These fairy wives are however still bound by traditional taboos. They must be careful to avoid touching iron

    "Hemochromatosis is the most common form of iron overload disease. Too much iron in the body causes hemochromatosis."
    "Primary hemochromatosis mainly affects Caucasians of Northern European descent. This disease is one of the most common genetic disorders in the United States. About four to five out of every 1,000 Caucasians carry two copies of the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene and are susceptible to developing hemochromatosis.1 About one out of every 10 Caucasians carries one copy of C282Y.1

    Hemochromatosis is extremely rare in African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanics/Latinos, and American Indians. HFE mutations are usually not the cause of hemochromatosis in these populations."

    Post edited by KingNaid on
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